Medical specialty that deals with all diseases of the digestive system, comprising of:

  • Colon (large intestine)
  • Oesophagus
  • Stomach
  • Liver and biliary tract
  • Small Intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum)
  • Pancreas
  • Straight

The colon is the last portion of the digestive system in most vertebrates; It extracts water and salt from solid wastes before they are discarder.

The colon has a thicker wall than the small bowel wall and is supplied by branches of the inferior and superior mesenteric arteries. These are composed of three tapeworms and haustras, that upon reaching the sigmoid colon begin to disappear. It extends from the right iliac fossa to the left iliac fossa.

In mammals, the colon has four sections: the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon. Being components of the Large Intestine: The colon, cecum and rectum.


It measures about 1.5 m. long and 6.5 cm. in diameter and extends between the anus and the ileum, which are connected to the posterior abdominal wall by the mesocolon (double peritoneal wall). Structurally speaking, it has the following parts: cecum, colon, rectum and anal canal.

Communication ileum and large intestine is given by the ileocecal sphincter.

Transverse Colon: It is the second section which extends through the abdomen from the right side to the left side. It´s two ends form flexures called:

  • Right colic flexure, which is the concection of the ascending colon with the transverse colon.
  • Left colic flexure, which is the junction of the transverse colon to the descending colon.
  • Top colic flexure

The left colic flexure is also known as splenic flexure by its relation to the spleen. It is projected ahead of the 8th rib corresponding to the vertebra T 11 and 12.

Descending colon: Located on the left side of the abdomen between the transverse colon and sigmoid colon.

Sigmoid Colon: It is the fourth section and is named “sigmoid” by the form of S. The sigmoid colon joins the rectum, and this leads to the anal canal.



The colon is located immediately after the blind. Its main functions are: storing waste, extracting water, maintain moisture balance and absorb some vitamins such as vitamin K.

When the chyme reaches the colon, most nutrients and 90% of water have already been absorbed by the body; some electrolytes such as sodium, magnesium, and chlorides and indigestible carbohydrates known as dietary fiber.

As the chyme moves along the intestine, most of the water from it will be removed, while it is impregnated by a mucosal and bacteria known as intestinal flora, thereby becoming in stool (feces). Bacteria will break some of the fibers to create their own nutrition and acetates, propionates and butyrates as waste products, which in turn are used by colon cells as food. This is an example of symbiosis that gives the body an average of one hundred calories a day. Colonic pH varies between 4.5 and 7.5 in adult (slightly acidic to neutral)




intestinal flora

Stool Analysis

Therapeutic Areas






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